The preliminary ruling caseIn May 2015, the French authority for data protection, CNIL served a notice to Google according to which, Google should remove all the links related to an individual (after the individual’s request) from all its search engine’s domain name extensions globally.
As Google did not comply with the notice, the CNIL imposed a fine of 100,000 EUR which prompted Google reaction asking the annulment of the sanction from the Council of State in France. Questions related to the case were sent to ECJ for a preliminary ruling.
The ECJ came to the conclusion that “Where a search engine operator grants a request for de-referencing pursuant to those provisions, that operator is not required to carry out that de-referencing on all versions of its search engine, but on the versions of that search engine corresponding to all the Member States, using, where necessary, measures which, while meeting the legal requirements, effectively prevent or, at the very least, seriously discourage an internet user conducting a search from one of the Member States on the basis of a data subject’s name from gaining access, via the list of results displayed following that search, to the links which are the subject of that request.”
Google geo-location argumentAccording to Google, it has implemented a new layout for the national versions of its search engine, in which the domain name entered by the internet user no longer determines the national version of the search engine accessed by that user. Thus, the internet user is now automatically directed to the national version of Google’s search engine that corresponds to the place from where he or she is presumed to be conducting the search, and the results of that search are displayed according to that place, which is determined by Google using an ip geo-location process.
The ECJ refers that there is no provision that prohibits the use of the geo-location argument and hence EU law does not currently require that the “right to be forgotten” refers to all versions of a search engine like Google.
The “right to be forgotten” in non-EU jurisdictionsThe preliminary ruling is an important step on how “the right to be forgotten” is interpreted and applied in cases which involve non-EU jurisdictions.
The ECJ in its decision refers to the two sides to be considered. From the one side is the protection of the right to privacy and the protection of personal data and on the other side is the freedom of information of internet users. How these rights are interpreted can vary significantly around the world. Because of these different meanings “de-referencing” is difficult to be applied in a harmonized way outside the European Union (EU).
Co-operation with authorities outside the EU is difficult, although GDPR provides for the cooperation of authorities in its provisions. Moreover, a global search engine operator is not obliged to follow the injunction of an EU authority, regarding its branches outside EU.
The Opinion of the Advocate General is available under the European Court of Justice Website